Physical rehabilitation after an Acquired Brain Injury.

Acquired Brain Injuries.

Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) is the disability caused by a sudden acute injury to brain structures and resulting in neurological impairments.

The most common symptoms of ABIs are headaches, vomiting, loss of vision, facial paralysis, difficulty in speech or comprehension, and loss of vision and coordination.

Main causes of Acquired Brain Injuries.

The causes of brain injuries can be diverse, among the most common are:

– Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a condition of the brain caused by an external force that can result in a dysfunction of the level of consciousness and leads to an alteration of cognitive and / or physical abilities. Among the main causes are traffic accidents, aggressions, accidents in extreme sports, etc.

– Stroke: Strokes, also known as cerebral hemorrhage, stroke, embolism or apoplexy, are blood flow disorders in one of the areas of the brain and can be caused by a thrombus formed in a cerebral artery.

– Cerebral Anoxia: Anoxia is the lack of oxygen to the tissues of the brain. This is caused by a lack of blood flow or low blood oxygen content and requires prompt treatment. There are two types of anoxia, anemic anoxia, which can be caused by severe anemia, or ischemic anoxia, which results from causes such as stroke or cerebral hemorrhage.

Sequelae of Acquired Brain Injuries.

The main consequences of Acquired Brain Injuries can be classified as follows:

– Communication: communication through verbal and written language may be affected with the appearance of certain impairments such as difficulty in comprehension, difficulty in naming objects and even difficulty in producing speech.

– Motor control: lesions in the cerebral hemispheres or in the brain stem may cause problems in the part of the body opposite to that of the injured hemisphere. Thus, paralysis, loss of strength, loss of sphincter control and even loss of movement control that allows the swallowing of solid food or liquids can occur.

– Cognition: Cognition helps us reflect and understand. Cognition impairments can be temporary or permanent. Motor and sensory functions may be affected.

– Problems when performing activities of daily living: There are two levels within a person’s activities of daily living that may be affected. On the one hand, there are the basic activities of dialy living such as dressing, grooming, moving around, etc. And, on the other hand, they refer to an individual’s ability to manage in society when it comes to running errands, shopping, using public transportation, working, etc.

– Reception of information: There are injuries that can affect to a greater or lesser extent sight, smell, touch and hearing. Depending on the type of injury, disorders in the visual field, loss of smell, loss of pain identification, and even problems in the control of balance, in those cases where the inner ear is affected, may occur.

Cognitive problems in many cases are neither apparent nor evident, so they can cause a negative impression on those who interact with the affected person because they do not understand the way he or she acts or behaves.

Among the main sequelae of brain injuries, those related to memory stand out. Normally, after an injury of this type, an episode of post-traumatic amnesia usually appears. It may be mild, moderate or long-lasting. In many cases, memory never recovers its normal function and its deficiencies remain forever.

On the other hand, there are also situations of disorientation or confusion that result in emotional or behavioral changes or hallucinations.

Treatment for Acquired Brain Injuries.

After a brain injury, as we have seen, sequelae may remain. The treatment and therapies required will depend on their severity. However, in most cases rehabilitation is required to improve the person’s quality of life.

Recovery treatments for individuals with ABIs must have the necessary resources to recover the patient’s maximum functionality and improve his or her autonomy.

Rehametrics software has physical and cognitive rehabilitation exercises specialized in the recovery of those abilities affected in individuals suffering from acquired brain injuries, allowing clinicians to adapt a rehabilitation program with virtual reality exercises focused on specific clinical goals.

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